literature of shape-shifting; however, starting with Chapter XI, convicted and executed for necrosadistic crimes. Baring-Gould treats the phenomenon of the werewolf as a psychological aberration, as essentially a delusional state. Marie de France, "Bisclavret", translated by Glyn S. Burgess and Keith Busby, in, E. William Monter, "Witchcraft in France and Switzerland" in Otten (ed.  Gervase also supports this terminology when he tells us that the French use the term "gerulfi" to describe what the English call "werewolves". INTRODUCTORY. CHAPTER II. Cycle of the Werewolf. The werewolf folklore found in Europe harks back to a common development during the Middle Ages, arising in the context of Christianisation, and the associated interpretation of pre-Christian mythology in Christian terms. 450-1100)-language text, Articles needing additional references from September 2019, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2007, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2014, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2013, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 20:10. A notable exception to the association of Lycanthropy and the Devil, comes from a rare and lesser known account of an 80-year-old man named Thiess. Werewolf Books – A Listing of Werewolves in Literature Fiction & Novels. Count Dracula stated in the novel that legends of werewolves originated from his Szekely racial bloodline, who himself is also depicted with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf at will during the night but is unable to do so during the day except at noon. The victim would be subjected to long periods of physical activity in the hope of being purged of the malady. McFarland, 2014, p.39, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Luther and the Justification of Resistance to Legitimate Authority", "Is the fear of wolves justified? It's merely an interesting side-story for readers to dive into once they reach the appropriate point in the main series. Marie also reveals to us the existence of werewolf belief in Breton and Norman France, by telling us the Franco-Norman word for werewolf: garwulf, which, she explains, are common in that part of France, where "...many men turned into werewolves". Fennoscandian werewolves were usually old women who possessed poison-coated claws and had the ability to paralyse cattle and children with their gaze. The Book of Were-Wolves. οὗτος ἔγραψε δι’ ἐπῶν ἡρωϊκῶν βιβλία ἰατρικὰ δύο καὶ μʹ, ἐν οἷς καὶ περὶ λυκανθρώπου. However, in other accounts of the legend, like that of Apollodorus' Bibliotheca, Zeus blasts him and his sons with thunderbolts as punishment. The only part of Europe which showed vigorous interest in werewolves after 1650 was the Holy Roman Empire. At the beginning of the 17th century witchcraft was prosecuted by James I of England, who regarded "warwoolfes" as victims of delusion induced by "a natural superabundance of melancholic". Lycanthropy can also be met with as the main content of a delusion, for example, the case of a woman has been reported who during episodes of acute psychosis complained of becoming four different species of animals.. Before the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the corpses of werewolves, if not destroyed, would return to life in the form of wolves or hyenas which prowled battlefields, drinking the blood of dying soldiers. The Fables of Mkhitar Gosh (New York, 1987), translated with an introduction by R. Bedrosian, edited by Elise Antreassian and illustrated by Anahid Janjigian, S. Baring-Gould. The Sentence and Execution. This practice stemmed from the fact that many alleged werewolves would be left feeling weak and debilitated after committing depredations.. The Investigation of Charges. Also the vampires and werewolves are closely related in Hungary, being both feared in the antiquity. When a ferocious, wolf-life creature appears in the small town of Bayport on the night of a full moon, the Hardy boys are engaged to clear the name of a young man who has a history of werewolves … ', Marie de France's poem Bisclavret (c. 1200) is another example, in which the eponymous nobleman Bisclavret, for reasons not described, had to transform into a wolf every week. Nevertheless, the first ten chapters of this book constitute The Scandinavian traditions of this period may have spread to Kievan Rus', giving rise to the Slavic "werewolf" tales.  However, the idea that lycanthropy could be transmitted in this way is not part of the original myths and legends and only appears in relatively recent beliefs. The concept of the werewolf in Western and Northern Europe is strongly influenced by the role of the wolf in Germanic paganism (e.g.  After this, the only further record from the Vaud dates to 1670: it is that of a boy who claimed he and his mother could change themselves into wolves, which was, however, not taken seriously. The Book of the Were-Wolf takes a rationalistic Here is a powerful, definitive new version of the werewolf legend—mesmerising and incredibly sexy. "[clarification needed] They stir the audience's compassion, largely because of their struggles to accept or control their lycanthropy. ). , Among the South Slavs, and also among the Kashubs of what is now northern Poland,[clarification needed] there was the belief that if a child was born with hair, a birthmark or a caul on their head, they were supposed to possess shapeshifting abilities.  In the beginning we meet Peter Fortune, a 10 year old who spends most of his time in his own private world made up entirely in his mind than in the outer world. Henry Boguet wrote a lengthy chapter about werewolves in 1602. The standard comparative overview of this aspect of Indo-European mythology is McCone (1987). "The Book of Werewolves was so visionary that it foresaw that future discussions within werewolf studies would necessarily travel down many side paths. (Summary by A. Gramour) Genre(s): Myths, Legends & Fairy Tales. Ralston in his Songs of the Russian People gives the form of incantation still familiar in Russia. In other fiction it can be cured by medicine men or antidotes. The Navajo people feared witches in wolf's clothing called "Mai-cob". The phenomenon of repercussion, the power of animal metamorphosis, or of sending out a familiar, real or spiritual, as a messenger, and the supernormal powers conferred by association with such a familiar, are also attributed to the magician, male and female, all the world over; and witch superstitions are closely parallel to, if not identical with, lycanthropic beliefs, the occasional involuntary character of lycanthropy being almost the sole distinguishing feature. Sabine Baring-Gould’s Book of Werewolves (which was recommended to me by several people here) was originally published in 1865. In Mexico, there is a belief in a creature called the nahual, which traditionally limits itself to stealing cheese and raping women rather than murder. , Virgil, in his poetic work Eclogues, wrote of a man called Moeris, who used herbs and poisons picked in his native Pontus to turn himself into a wolf. One bite from a transformed or a transforming werewolf will turn its victims into werewolves and they will be left with a lifelong scar. ", The 1897 novel Dracula and the short story "Dracula's Guest", both written by Bram Stoker, drew on earlier mythologies of werewolves and similar legendary demons and "was to voice the anxieties of an age", and the "fears of late Victorian patriarchy". They were dealt with by decapitation with a spade and exorcism by the parish priest. LibriVox recording of The Book of Werewolves: Being an Account of a Terrible Superstition by Sabine Baring-Gould. In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh. Book description: “Werewolves takes the form of an illustrated journal that plunges readers into the life… Die Volkssagen von Pommern und Rugen.  Such examples of werewolves in Ireland and the British Isles can be found in the work of the 9th century Welsh monk Nennius; female werewolves appear in the Irish work Tales of the Elders, from the 12th century; and Welsh werewolves in the 12th-13th century Mabinogion. With her better nature overcome, the she-wolf devours each of her own children, then her relatives' children in order of relationship, and finally the children of strangers. The Maréchal de Retz.-I. by Patricia Briggs. Along with the vulnerability to the silver bullet, the full moon being the cause of the transformation only became part of the depiction of werewolves on a widespread basis in the twentieth century. The Origin of the Scaninavian Were-Wolf, Chapter V. The Were-Wolf in the Middle Ages, Chapter VIII. The power of transforming others into wild beasts was attributed not only to malignant sorcerers, but to Christian saints as well. Mitológiai kislexikon, I-II., Budapest: Merényi Könyvkiadó (év nélkül) Mitólogiai kislexikon. Verdict. His behaviour at court was gentle, until his wife and her new husband appeared at court, so much so that his hateful attack on the couple was deemed justly motivated, and the truth was revealed.  although there were continuing reports of extraordinary wolflike beasts (but not werewolves). These included the meeting of both eyebrows at the bridge of the nose, curved fingernails, low-set ears and a swinging stride. , Werewolves are typically envisioned as "working-class" monsters, often being low in socio-economic status, although they can represent a variety of social classes and at times were seen as a way of representing "aristocratic decadence" during 19th century horror literature..  This is however argued against by Woodward, who points out how mythological werewolves were almost invariably portrayed as resembling true wolves, and that their human forms were rarely physically conspicuous as porphyria victims. Cry Wolf. THE BOOK OF WERE-WOLVES. Disgusted, the god turns Lycaon into a wolf. The infection is in the saliva of a werewolf. In medieval Europe, traditionally, there are three methods one can use to cure a victim of lycanthropy; medicinally (usually via the use of wolfsbane), surgically, or by exorcism. The narrator describes a wintry Northern country and the nature of the wolves there, who have terrifying eyes, ghostly howls, and a love of flesh. Baltic has related terms, Lithuanian vilkolakis and vilkatas, Latvian vilkatis and vilkacis. The 11th-century Belarusian Prince Vseslav of Polotsk was considered to have been a werewolf, capable of moving at superhuman speeds, as recounted in The Tale of Igor's Campaign: Vseslav the prince judged men; as prince, he ruled towns; but at night he prowled in the guise of a wolf. Quoting Euanthes,  he mentions that in Arcadia, once a year a man was chosen by lot from the Anthus' clan. This book is available for free download in a number of formats - including epub, pdf, azw, mobi and more. "On Porphyria and the Ætiology of Werwolves", http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/werewolf.html#temmezarnow, "The Nazi Werewolves Who Terrorized Allied Soldiers at the End of WWII", United States National Library of Medicine, Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Werewolf&oldid=999754357, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2013, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2013, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Old English (ca. One universally reviled trait in medieval Europe was the werewolf's habit of devouring recently buried corpses, a trait that is documented extensively, particularly in the Annales Medico-psychologiques in the 19th century. Usually in these cases the abilities are diminished in human form. The Nature of the Beast: Transformations of the Werewolf from the 1970s to the Twenty-first Century. Cycle of the Werewolf and The Colorado Kid are the only two Stephen King novels to only be published in paperback once. Perhaps the most infamous example is the case of Peter Stumpp (executed in 1589), the German farmer, and alleged serial killer and cannibal, also known as the Werewolf of Bedburg. A more tragic character is Lawrence Talbot, played by Lon Chaney Jr. in 1941's The Wolf Man. Werewolf Books. sensationalistic 'true crime' case-studies of cannibals,  In "Dracula's Guest," a band of military horsemen coming to the aid of the protagonist chase off Dracula, depicted as a great wolf stating the only way to kill it is by a "Sacred Bullet". The trappings of horror literature in the 20th century became part of the horror and fantasy genre of modern popular culture. The beliefs classed together under lycanthropy are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat capriciously applied. The werewolves were known to exterminate all kind of farm animals, especially sheep. , Werewolvery was a common accusation in witch trials throughout their history, and it featured even in the Valais witch trials, one of the earliest such trials altogether, in the first half of the 15th century. Like the witchcraft trials as a whole, the trial of supposed werewolves emerged in what is now Switzerland (especially the Valais and Vaud) in the early 15th century and spread throughout Europe in the 16th, peaking in the 17th and subsiding by the 18th century. The complete text of the book penned in 1865 in available at the link above. He claimed they were warriors who went down into hell to do battle with witches and demons. Szabó, György. the notorious associate of Joan of Arc, who was Be mindful these stories were published in 1865 and the content will have "current" events the author had encountered as well as mythological findings in terms of what was known and understood at that time. Sabine Baring-Gould (1834-1924) was a Vicar in the Church of England in Devon, The only Old High German testimony is in the form of a given name, Weriuuolf, although an early Middle High German werwolf is found in Burchard of Worms and Berthold of Regensburg. He has always been quiet, peaceful, disciplined, and respective of rules but he had one flaw: he was too quiet. Slavic uses the term vlko-dlak (Polish wilkołak, Czech vlkodlak, Slovak vlkolak, Serbo-Croatian вукодлак - vukodlak, Slovenian volkodlak, Bulgarian върколак/vrkolak, Belarusian ваўкалак/vaukalak, Ukrainian вовкулака/vovkulaka), literally "wolf-skin", paralleling the Old Norse ulfhéðinn. ... Book of Werewolves, The by BARING-GOULD, Sabine LibriVox Books 4.3 • 4 Ratings; Listen on Apple Podcasts. Sometimes, less extreme methods were used. Chapter XIII. Belief in werewolves developed in parallel to the belief in witches, in the course of the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern period. To that end, he kills a Molossian hostage and serve his entrails to Zeus. The word werewolf comes from the Old English word werwulf, a compound of wer "man" and wulf "wolf".  Lorey (2000) records six trials in the period 1701 and 1725, all in either Styria or Carinthia; 1701 Paul Perwolf of Wolfsburg, Obdach, Styria (executed); 1705 "Vlastl" of Murau, Styria (verdict unknown); 1705/6 six beggars in Wolfsberg, Carinthia (executed); 1707/8 three shepherds in Leoben and Freyenstein, Styria (one lynching, two probable executions); 1718 Jakob Kranawitter, a mentally retarded beggar, in Rotenfel, Oberwolz, Styria (corporeal punishment); 1725: Paul Schäffer, beggar of St. Leonhard im Lavanttal, Carinthia (executed). (Μ 205) Μάρκελλος Σιδήτης, ἰατρός, ἐπὶ Μάρκου Ἀντωνίνου. Middle Latin gerulphus Anglo-Norman garwalf, Old Frankish *wariwulf. Dr Lee Illis of Guy's Hospital in London wrote a paper in 1963 entitled On Porphyria and the Aetiology of Werewolves, in which he argues that historical accounts on werewolves could have in fact been referring to victims of congenital porphyria, stating how the symptoms of photosensitivity, reddish teeth and psychosis could have been grounds for accusing a sufferer of being a werewolf. In the German lowland of Schleswig-Holstein, a werewolf could be cured if one were to simply address it three times by its Christian name, while one Danish belief holds that merely scolding a werewolf will cure it. "The werewolves", writes Richard Verstegan (Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 1628).  In other cases, the body is rubbed with a magic salve. 61-62). Werewolves are often depicted as immune to damage caused by ordinary weapons, being vulnerable only to silver objects, such as a silver-tipped cane, bullet or blade; this attribute was first adopted cinematically in The Wolf Man. Definition of Lycanthropy—Marcellus Sidetes—Virgil— Herodotus—Ovid—Pliny—Agriopas—Story from Petronius— Arcadian Legends—Explanation offered CHAPTER III. The curse can also be obtained when in the adulthood the person passed three times through an arch made of a Birch with the help of a wild rose's spine. But in some books and films, werewolves are good, or at least sympathetic. The book starts off with a straightforward academic review of the literature of shape-shifting; however, starting with Chapter XI, the narrative takes a strange turn into sensationalistic 'true crime' case-studies of cannibals, grave desecrators, and blood fetishists, which have a tenuous connection with lycanthropy. Probably the result of seeing An American Werewolf in London when I was nine, as well as the usual assortment of late-afternoon werewolf movies on TV when I was young. If during these nine years he refrained from tasting human flesh, he returned to the same marsh, swam back and recovered his previous human form, with nine years added to his appearance. Herodotus, in his Histories, wrote that the Neuri, a tribe he places to the north-east of Scythia, were all transformed into wolves once every year for several days, and then changed back to their human shape. Until the 20th century, wolf attacks on humans were an occasional, but still widespread feature of life in Europe. People have, in fact, written the book on the subject—and not fiction. An idea is explored in Sabine Baring-Gould's work The Book of Werewolves is that werewolf legends may have been used to explain serial killings. Some modern researchers have tried to explain the reports of werewolf behaviour with recognised medical conditions. In the same vein, in some rural areas of Germany, Poland and Northern France, it was once believed that people who died in mortal sin came back to life as blood-drinking wolves. These "undead" werewolves would return to their human corpse form at daylight. Belief in the loup-garou present in Canada, the Upper and Lower Peninsulas of Michigan and upstate New York, originates from French folklore influenced by Native American stories on the Wendigo. 1 Summary 2 Adaptations 3 Audiobook … Cycle of the Werewolf is the 18th book published by Stephen King; it was his 15th novel, and the eleventh novel under his own name. If they abastain of tasting human flesh while being wolves, they would be restored to human form nine years later, but if they do they will remains wolves forever. Use of the Greek-derived lycanthropy in English occurs in learned writing beginning in the later 16th century (first recorded 1584 in The Discoverie of Witchcraft by Reginald Scot, who argued against the reality of werewolves; "Lycanthropia is a disease, and not a transformation." v. i. Some of the wolves are werewolves, though, and sneak into human homes. This etext was scanned at sacred-texts.  This tale is also recounted by Pliny the Elder, who calls the man Demaenetus quoting Agriopas. There were numerous reports of werewolf attacks – and consequent court trials – in 16th-century France. An idea is explored in Sabine Baring-Gould's work The Book of Werewolves is that werewolf legends may have been used to explain serial killings. Book Summary.  The claim that the Beast of Gévaudan, an 18th-century wolf or wolflike creature, was shot by a silver bullet appears to have been introduced by novelists retelling the story from 1935 onwards and not in earlier versions. , Pliny the Elder likewise recounts another tale of lycanthropy.  However, Woodward dismissed the possibility, as the rarity of the disease ruled it out from happening on a large scale, as werewolf cases were in medieval Europe. The term lycanthropy, referring both to the ability to transform oneself into a wolf and to the act of so doing, comes from Ancient Greek λυκάνθρωπος lukánthropos (from λύκος lúkos "wolf" and ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos "human"). by Kelley Armstrong. Still, werewolves have a cult following, werewolf sightings are reported each year, and werewolf legends will likely continue to haunt the dreams of … Even though she knows that wolves are worst in the barren months, she insists on carrying a basket of food to her sick grandmother. by Maggie Stiefvater. an essential work on the subject of werewolves.  Likewise, in the Vaud, child-eating werewolves were reported as early as 1448. The case of Peter Stumpp (1589) led to a significant peak in both interest in and persecution of supposed werewolves, primarily in French-speaking and German-speaking Europe. Baring-Gould was also a bit eccentric. ), J.B. Ambrosetti (1976). The persecution of werewolves and the associated folklore is an integral part of the "witch-hunt" phenomenon, albeit a marginal one, accusations of lycanthropy being involved in only a small fraction of witchcraft trials. Old Norse had the cognate varúlfur, but because of the high importance of werewolves in Norse mythology, there were alternative terms such as ulfhéðinn ("one in wolf-skin", referring still to the totemistic or cultic adoption of wolf-nature rather than the superstitious belief in actual shapeshifting). 92), at first explicitly for clinical lycanthropy, i.e. Lorey (2000) records 280 known cases; this contrasts with a total number of 12,000 recorded cases of executions for witchcraft, or an estimated grand total of about 60,000, corresponding to 2% or 0.5% respectively. Translated by, Crossen, Carys Elizabeth. Werewolf, in European folklore, a man who turns into a wolf at night and devours animals, people, or corpses but returns to human form by day. Thiess was steadfast in his assertions, claiming that werewolves in Germany and Russia also did battle with the devil's minions in their own versions of hell, and insisted that when werewolves died, their souls were welcomed into heaven as reward for their service. Fantasmas de la selva misionera (". According to some Swedish accounts, the werewolf could be distinguished from a regular wolf by the fact that it would run on three legs, stretching the fourth one backwards to look like a tail. Natural Causes of Lycanthropy, Chapter X. Mythological Origin of the Were-Wolf Myth. Sabine BARING-GOULD (1834 - 1924) A survey of the myths and legends concerning lycanthropy from ancient times to the Victorian Era. The Book of Were-Wolves by Sabine Baring-Gould. Augustine explains that "It is very generally believed that by certain witches spells men may be turned into wolves..." Physical metamorphosis was also mentioned in the Capitulatum Episcopi, attributed to the Council of Ancyra in the 4th century, which became the Church's doctrinal text in relation to magic, witches, and transformations such as those of werewolves. Omnes angeli, boni et Mali, ex virtute naturali habent potestatem transmutandi corpora nostra ("All angels, good and bad have the power of transmutating our bodies") was the dictum of St. Thomas Aquinas. Maréchal de Retz.--III.  After returning to their human forms, werewolves are usually documented as becoming weak, debilitated and undergoing painful nervous depression. For other uses, see. Some scholars have suggested that it was inevitable that wolves, being the most feared predators in Europe, were projected into the folklore of evil shapeshifters. grave desecrators, and blood fetishists, Use of lycanthropy for supposed shapeshifting is much later, introduced ca. Such is the case of Lycaon, who was turned into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for slaughtering one of his own sons and serving his remains to the gods as a dinner.  According to Pausanias, this was not a one-off event, but that men have been transformed into wolves during the sacrifices to Zeus Lycaeus since the time of Lycaon. After 1650, belief in Lycanthropy had mostly disappeared from French-speaking Europe, as evidenced in Diderot's Encyclopedia, which attributed reports of lycanthropy to a "disorder of the brain. Woodward focused on the idea that being bitten by a werewolf could result in the victim turning into one, which suggested the idea of a transmittable disease like rabies. (1865), Temme, J.D.H. Plot summary.  In prose, the Satyricon, written circa AD 60 by Gaius Petronius Arbiter, one of the characters, Niceros, tells a story at a banquet about a friend who turned into a wolf (chs. After hitting up the local bookshop I got my hands on the graphic novel-like book Werewolves. The story's protagonist is a blond child. This isn't entirely a … Shiver. The tale probably relates to a rite of passage for Arcadian' youths. Werewolves were sighted in 1598 in Anjou, and a teenage werewolf was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bordeaux in 1603. , The first feature film to use an anthropomorphic werewolf was Werewolf of London in 1935. Gervase, who was writing in Germany, also tells the reader that the transformation of men into wolves cannot be easily dismissed, for "...in England we have often seen men change into wolves" ("Vidimus enim frequenter in Anglia per lunationes homines in lupos mutari…").  This negative reaction to silver is sometimes so strong that the mere touch of the metal on a werewolf's skin will cause burns.  English folklore, prior to 1865, showed shapeshifters to be vulnerable to silver.  Sympathetic portrayals are few but notable, such as the comedic but tortured protagonist David Naughton in An American Werewolf in London, and a less anguished and more confident and charismatic Jack Nicholson in the 1994 film Wolf. Once the disease infects its victim, the person will have to wait until the ne… the narrative takes a strange turn into by Patricia Briggs. The Úlfhednar were fighters similar to the berserkers, though they dressed in wolf hides rather than those of bears and were reputed to channel the spirits of these animals to enhance effectiveness in battle. When the European colonization of the Americas occurred, the pioneers brought their own werewolf folklore with them and were later influenced by the lore of their neighbouring colonies and those of the Natives. by Stephen King. In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man or woman could turn into a werewolf if he or she, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night with the full moon shining directly on his or her face.. The Naskapis believed that the caribou afterlife is guarded by giant wolves which kill careless hunters venturing too near. The transformation may be temporary or permanent; the were-animal may be the man himself metamorphosed; may be his double whose activity leaves the real man to all appearance unchanged; may be his soul, which goes forth seeking whomever it may devour, leaving its body in a state of trance; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a real animal or a familiar spirit, whose intimate connection with its owner is shown by the fact that any injury to it is believed, by a phenomenon known as repercussion, to cause a corresponding injury to the human being. In Serbia, the werewolf and vampire are known collectively as vulkodlak.. So, for #WerewolfWednesday, I bring you a compendium of such writings. Pausanias also relates the story of an Arcadian man called Damarchus of Parrhasia, who was turned into a wolf after tasting the entrails of a human child sacrificed to Zeus Lycaeus. , In Asian Cultures[which? In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans believed in the power of exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. At the age of seven the boy or the girl leaves the house, goes hunting by night and can change to a person or wolf whenever he wants. , A few references to men changing into wolves are found in Ancient Greek literature and mythology.  Conrad specifically refers to the tales of Ovid in his tract. 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